The Reformation Martin Luther&nbsp.(10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was an iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He was a German priestand a professor of theology. He challenged the orthodox Christian teachings of Roman Catholic Church (the dominant force of status quo) where he strongly rejected the notion of taking money for forgiveness of sins. Luther’s challenge to Catholic practices became a one on one face off when Martin Luther disputed the Dominican preacher and ‘indulgence salesman’, Johann Tetzel. He wrote his famous ninety five theses in 1517 to confront Tetzel. The whole of Church Administration including the Pope Leo X and the Holy Emperor Charles V were on one side and Martin Luther with his ninety five theses was challenging all of them. He was tried at the ‘Diet of Worms’ for his accusations to Church’s action in 1521.
Martin Luther’s trial at ‘Diet of Worms’ punished him with excommunication when he refused to recant his 45 sentences including ninety five theses. That gave him the opportunity to fuel the movement of Protestant Reformation. By 1526 he was actively involved in the building of a new Church with improved standards of teaching. Martin Luther with the help of his colleagues introduced a new order of prayers at their Electoral Saxony of 1527. He completed many religious literary pieces including his German Mass which was his simpler form of his earlier Latin Mass. The idea was to make religious teachings and scriptures easier for common people. He believed that Catholic Church was not letting people understand the religion, instead they were coming up with their interpretations of the teachings of Christ as they found fitting. What started as a question or a challenge to Catholic teachings turned into a massively popular protestant movement in Christianity.
The Scientific Revolution
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was one of the greatest scientists of the era of Scientific Revolution. He was an Italian physicist, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer. Galileo constructed his famous theory of heliocentrism which apparently was contradictory to Biblical Scriptures. According to this theory, Galileo correctly demonstrated the orbit of the solar system by stating that the sun is the center around which the earth and other planets revolve. This didn’t sit well with the Catholic Church who blamed Galileo of committing heresy as his theory was against the reading of the scriptures. “The world is firmly established, it cannot be moved” (1 Chronicles 16:30). Galileo faced a trial on suspicion of heresy. Today he is recognized as the iconic challenger in the face of Church’s Authority.
In 1633, Galileo faced his trial which found him guilty of heresy. He was imprisoned and his famous work on solar system orbits, Dialogue was banned. He spent the rest of his life in house arrest where he came up with one of his finest works, Two New Sciences, in which he summarized his earlier works which are now known as two distinct branches of science, kinematics and strength of materials. Due to his contribution to science and his firm stance of his scientific investigations, he is recognized by Stephen Hawking as the greatest contributor to modern science and by Albert Einstein as the ‘father of modern science’. After his death, many other scientists confirmed what Galileo had proposed was in fact true and Catholic Church was wrong in accusing him of heresy. This considerably damaged the reputation of Church’s Authority.
Works Cited
"Galileo Galilei."&nbsp.Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. .
"Martin Luther."&nbsp.Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. .