STATISTICS For each of the following research questions, identify the independent variable and the dependent variable: a. Isa person’s age related to his/her psychological adjustment following a burn injury?SOLUTIONAGEb. How do physically handicapped children differ from nonhandicapped children with respect to health self-concepts.?SOLUTIONHANDICAPPEDc. Do patients who administer their own pain medication have lower pain ratings than patients whose pain medication is administered by nurses?SOLUTIONTeacher/Nursed. Is the intracranial pressure of comatose patients affected by the presence of conversing visitors?SOLUTIONConversing visitorse. How does a bonnet compare to a stockinette in preventing heat loss in newborns?SOLUTIONBonnet/Stockinette2. A psychologist studying intelligence tested the intelligence of 30 college psychology students using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition (WAIS-III). Following is a table of the full-scale intelligence scores the psychologist obtained:103 92 113 110 122 122115 100 140 111 131 108110 121 110 124 100 10798 110 109 127 88 111122 109 103 97 113 101For the data presented above,a. Create a table showing the frequency, cumulative frequency, % and cumulative % distribution of the individual (ungrouped) scores.SOLUTIONScoresFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative PercentValid8813.33.33.39213.33.36.79713.33.310.09813.33.313.310026.76.720.010113.33.323.310326.76.730.010713.33.333.310813.33.336.710926.76.743.3110413.313.356.711126.76.763.311326.76.770.011513.33.373.312113.33.376.7122310.010.086.712413.33.390.012713.33.393.313113.33.396.714013.33.3100.0Total30100.0100.0b. Create a stem-and-leaf plot of the data.SOLUTIONStem-and-Leaf Display: Scores Stem-and-leaf of Scores N = 30Leaf Unit = 1.0 1 8 8 2 9 2 4 9 78 9 10 00133 13 10 7899(8) 11 00001133 9 11 5 8 12 12224 3 12 73. Why are descriptive statistics so important?SOLTIONA. They allow us to get to know our data4. For each of the variables listed below, indicate which variable is discrete and which variable is continuous:a. Number of beds in a hospital SOLUTION Discreteb. Height in inches or centimeterSOLUTIONContinuousc. Number of pregnancies a woman has hadSOLUTIONDiscreted. Amount of time spent sleepingSOLUTIONContinuouse. Body temperature measured in Fahrenheit/Celsius degreesSOLUTIONContinuous5. For each of the variables listed below, indicate whether the measurement is nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio:a. Degrees on the Celsius scale SOLUTIONIntervalb. Runners’ ranking in a race (1st, 2nd, etc.)SOLUTIONOrdinal c. Number of cigarettes smoked per day SOLUTIONRatio d. Scores on a 100-point scale measuring nurses’ empathy SOLUTIONIntervale. Adherence versus nonadherence to a treatment regimen SOLUTIONNominalf. Academic rank (professor, associate professor, etc.)SOLUTIONOrdinal g. Type of delivery (vaginal vs. cesarean) SOLUTIONNominalh. White blood cell countSOLUTIONRatioi. In a study on patient satisfaction with a particular nursing procedure, 25 patients were asked to rate the procedure on the scale very negative, negative, neutral, positive, very positive.SOLUTIONOrdinal6. The equation is best known asSOLUTION1. Sum of all the squared values of the variable x in the data set7. Obtain for the following sets of numbers.a. 5, 10, 12SOLUTIONb. 61, 70, 90, 85SOLUTION8. The equation is best known as the SOLUTIONC. Square of the sum of all the values of the variable x in the data set.15. For the following situations, specify the independent and dependent variable being measured and the measured and specify the measurement scale (nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio).a. A nurse wishes to determine the effect of visual imagery and music therapy on blood pressure of a group of geriatric patients in a long term care facility.SOLUTIONIndependent variable=visual imagery and music therapy. nominal measurementDependent variable=blood pressure. ratio measurementb. In a study of the effect of behavior modification and a twelve step recovery program on newly diagnosed alcoholics, a nurse researcher determined the number of relapse episodes on a group of recovering alcoholics in the Southeast.SOLUTIONIndependent variable=behavior modification and music therapy. nominal measurementDependent variable= number of relapse episodes. interval measurementc. In a study of the effect of massage therapy on lower back pain, an investigator determined the pain score of the patients after they had a one hour session of deep tissue massage therapy.SOLUTIONIndependent variable=massage therapy. nominal measurementDependent variable= pain score. ordinal measurementd. A nurse researcher wanted to determine the relationship between years of RN experience, specialty certification and hospital acquired urinary tract infections on ICU patients.SOLUTIONIndependent variable=years of RN experience (ratio measurement), specialty certification (nominal measurement) and hospital acquired urinary tract (nominal measurement)Dependent variable= ICU patients. nominal measuremente. A nurse educator wanted to determine the relationship between NCLEX prep classes and NCLEX pass rate?SOLUTIONIndependent variable=NCLEX prep classes. (ratio measurement)Dependent variable=NCLEX pass rate. (interval measurement)