Social structure is so strong that it affects even the development of self-concept and self-esteem of individuals – even young children living in a certain community.This premise inspires academicians from Michigan State University and The John Hopkins University to investigate the nature of self-esteem. In their quest, they found out that the fundamental difficulty in conducting a certain research on self-esteem is the lack of strong theoretical guidance for defining the appropriate domains of self-concept. Before we try to understand the study from a deeper perspective, let us first understand the basic difference between self-concept and self-esteem.Self-concept is basically how the person views himself/herself in relation to any number of characteristics. For example, how does he/she look? How does he/she stand? and so on. Self-esteem, on the other hand, is the overall judgment of his/her worth as a person. With these definitions in mind, we understand that a self-concept is directly proportional to the self-esteem of a person that starts from childhood to adulthood.Now, let us take a closer look at the study entitled Social Structure and the Development of Self-Esteem in Young Children. The study comes from the investigation of nature and self-esteem in a large mixed-race sample of urban children over their first four years of schooling, using the confirmatory factor analytic model. The rationale and the conceptual basis for this model lead the researchers to posit a five-dimensional structure – character, personal responsibility, academic, appearance, and athletic (Pallas, A., et. al., 1990).The objective of the study is to know whether the structure and the level of self-concept vary for different types of children. The hypotheses rely heavily on the invariance of self-esteem across groups and that the various facets of the self-become more distinct as children mature.