Considering ANWR’s case, the prospective oil reserves are located in isolated and pristine locations. The road construction requires a huge amount of gravel. These gravels are either hauled in from the natural boulders and cliffs’ destruction or from the outside sources. The area, located near the water sources and oil deposit, is leveled by filling in wetlands and clearing forest areas. A significant water reserve is a key element for drilling. The preliminary oil drilling’s construction can be devastating to the surrounding topography and endangers the aquatic life’s survival. The oil development’s construction can affect wildlife and the surrounding environment. Pipelines and roads disrupt migratory patterns, prey balance, alter the predator and divide populations. Therefore, it can state that ANWR should not be opened. The 1002 area can be targeted for the purpose of oil development due to the superior estimation for oil reserves, effective transportation routes and accessibility to the water resources. Specifically, the road construction should be detrimental in the specific 1002 area. According to several studies, it is evident that the density of several animals and caribou’s population has decreased near the constructed roads and several developed areas. This population dispersion leads to a decrease in the possibilities of discovering a mate that could push several animals to breed in various undesirable areas. It is the major reason behind the decrease in the offspring’s number. Oil drilling in ANWR has a similar potential environmental effect of a similar development in the Prudhoe Bay’s surrounding area. The oil development platform is situated almost 60 miles away from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Prudhoe Bay oil development was established in the year 1967. Since the last 25 years, the oil development platform has produced almost 15 billion barrels. It has resulted in a billion dollars in business profit. More than 400 square miles of the landscape has been modified by almost 1500 miles of pipeline and roads that were laid during the site’s construction. The Wildlife and Fish Service department of the US has reported that this road and pipeline disruption and habitat destruction has caused the death of more than 15,000 birds (Warren 6). Moreover, Salt water’s intake for the purpose of oil drilling has removed more than 400000 fish larvae. Moreover, the total population of wolf and beer has declined due to this oil drilling in the particular Prudhoe Bay area. Most significantly, the density of caribou has decreased within an almost 4Km zone of roads and pipelines. The ecosystem of arctic remains a brittle balance of predator relation, interdependent prey, the population of several animals. These oil drilling has dramatic long-term and short-term effects on the earth’s eco-system. Oil development and drilling of oil not only destroys the surrounding environment but also discharges several waste materials that can result in huge damages. The huge amount of oil and gas waste can enter into the open pits, frozen into the permafrost and can directly discharge into the natural water and air that is very much dangerous for the human and animal’s population. This can actually affect the balance of eco-system. In the year 1995, almost 500 spills were involved in more than 80,000 gallons of acid, oil diesel fuel, drilling fluid and ethylene glycol.