This number includes 214 million international migrants and 740 million internally displaced persons (“World Migration Report”). Human migration, whether internationally or internally, from one geographical place to another geographical place takes place due to various reasons, which can be categorized into two general factors: pull factor or moving into a place and push factor or leaving a place (“Why do people migrate?”). The pull factors are causes that enforce a country to bring people from other countries, whereas push factors are causes make people leave their own countries. Some of the pull factors are need for additional labor at relatively lower cost for the industrial and infrastructure development of the country, falling birthrates of developing countries, and rapid economic expansion. Different causes that can be noted among push factors are lack of prospects of career development in native countries, poverty and low income in native countries, prosecution and poor human rights, civil war, and natural disaster (“Why do people migrate?”). The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview on the global phenomenon of human migration through the perspectives of historical, political, economic, environmental, and cultural events.
Spread of religion, search for new lands for human inhabitants may be allocated to the historical reasons causing migration during different periods of human civilization. All three major regions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam reshaped the globe through human immigration. Since the birth of Islam as a religion in 610, the followers of Islam first spread it throughout the Arabian Peninsula, and then to Egypt and other parts of North Africa. Spread of Catholicism by Portuguese and Spanish played role in human immigration during 11th and 12th centuries. Migration of Jewish people from Eastern to Western Europe and then to the United States of America in the 19th century reshaped the ethnicity of