Modern police information management was first pioneered through the use and acceptance of the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) by both federal police agencies (such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation) and by local and state police organizations of the United States of America which enabled law enforcement organizations to enhance their crime-fighting strategies based on effective criminal information gathering methods and effective analyst of data.
As technology continues to evolve, the advent of the computer and consequently, the creation and use of advanced analytical software or programs have greatly influenced the further effectiveness of police information management systems.
2. Law Enforcement Intelligence
Police intelligence or Law Enforcement Intelligence is a relatively new concept of policing since by tradition, most police agencies do not maintain a dedicated unit with full-time intelligence officers and analysts, nor does most police agencies involved in the collection, collation, management or even share criminal information with appropriate members of the intelligence community.
The need however for a police agency to have a dedicated intelligence capability have become more relevant with the advent of transnational crime and terrorism in the global scene, with law enforcement becoming more integral and dynamic with the continuing refinement of police methodologies and access to resources that better allows the police to more effectively serve the community.
One of the most significant strides in technology which contributed to the relevance of law enforcement intelligence is the existing and emerging technologies brought about by custom made software dedicated for law enforcement analytical functions, data management, intelligence production, and dissemination.
The dissemination of much-needed intelligence by means of the internet makes its easier for large, medium and small police agencies to share intelligence and disseminate the same to other police agencies or jurisdiction, therefore directly contributing not only ineffective domestic security, but also influence global security as well.
3. Community Oriented Policing
Police agencies are responsible for the maintenance of peace and order and the enforcement of laws as well as the prevention of crime and providing other related services. Police agencies, however (in whatever country) is always provided with limited resources which often than not directly affect police plans to effectively and efficiently fight crime whether it be a short-medium or long term strategic plan.
Because better police strategic plans are affected by limited resources (manpower, vehicles, equipment, etc.) police response to citizen calls for distress does not actually lead to increased arrest of crime suspects. increased police patrol in some jurisdiction have proven to be ineffective in curbing crime. directives for police detectives to increase the number of crime cases solved proved difficult at best.
The concept of community-oriented policing began in the 1970s and has since gained acceptance and recognition in a number of jurisdiction. Community-oriented policing unlike traditional crime-fighting methods, emphasizes the building of relationship between the police and the community by allowing the police to tap the power of the community’s social control mechanism (whether formal or informal) and therefore allowing the police to shift its resources and function on maintenance of peace and order with the community backing the police as active co-producers of public safety. In essence community-oriented policing transforms a police force from being a reactive agency into a proactive one more attuned to preventing the spread of the disease of crime instead of treating it.
The advent of modern technology such as the use of cell phones (with camera and video capability), portable handheld radios, community-sponsored close circuit television and internet social networks such as facebook and twitter have helped contribute to the spreading acceptance of community-oriented policing as a means of empowering the normal citizen in fighting and preventing crime within their respective jurisdiction or home communities. Technology in effect has made policing become a responsibility shared between the government and its citizen.