Employee Training and Development



Trainers should understand the impacts of each method and the mode of responsiveness on trainees before training them. According to Aguinis, (2012), training methods can be divided into cognitive and behavioural. Cognitive methods involve offering theoretical information on the basics required by the employees to improve their efficiency in individual assignments. Some services associated with cognitive training include offering verbal directions on how to perform an action, conveying verbal or written information, and demonstration of the relationships between roles. The learning provided through training leads to improvement in the knowledge levels of the trainees. Cognitive training methods include lectures, demonstrations, discussions, Computer-Based Training (CBT), virtual reality, Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) and Programmed Instructions (PI). Behavioural training methods involve the provision of practical directions to employees. Trainees are allowed to act in a practical way related to the tasks they are supposed to undertake. Behavioural methods are reliable in the development of skills. Such methods include business games, case studies, games and simulations, behaviour modelling, role plays, equipment stimulators and in-basket technique. Training and development encompasses efficient business management. Business management focuses on the future progress and development of employee skills. Organisations yearn to instil sound management practices that are suitable for conforming to the changing technological environment. In this case, training is necessary to ensure that employees enhance the organisational competiveness. The management development methods can be on-the-job training or off-the-job training. The four techniques that encompass on-the-job training include coaching, Job Instruction Technique (JIT), and mentoring and job rotation (Bernas and Piecha, 2009). Off-the-job training includes sensitivity training, simulation exercises, transactional analysis, sensitivity training and straight lectures/lectures. Application of the computer based training (CBT) is related to the fact that the modern advancement in technology has led to the replacement of the classroom lectures with technological devices (Formaneck and Cozzarin, 2012:459-472). The method is efficient because it does not require any interaction between the human trainer and the trainee which is normally inefficient, tedious and time-consuming. Some of the methods that the pharmaceutical companies can apply when using CBT include Intelligent Tutorial System (ITS) and virtual reality. The system uses artificial intelligence in the provision of information that is relayed to trainees. The organisation feeds informational related to best practises in pharmaceutical industry and programs the ITS to relay the information to the trainees. The programmed instruction is strategically designed to offer reliable and efficient information for efficient learning. The programme is designed to ask a question whereby advancing to the next level is dependent on the trainee’s answer. However, offering wrong answers stalls the learning process as the trainee will be taken to the initial review until correct details are offered. The programmed instruction can occur in the form of tapes, interactive video, and books. The unique characteristic of the programmed inst