A Definition of Knowledge

A Definition of Knowledge What is knowledge Knowledge is familiarity with truths, principles or facts with regards to study or investigation. to know many things. Being conversant with a particular subject or branch of learning for example : A knowledge of Mathematic was necessary for the job.
"The information that changes something or somebody :by becoming an action ground, or by making an individual (or an organization) capable of diverse or more effective action." (Peter F. Drucker) in The New Realities. It is an awareness of a fact. Information with clear and certain mental apprehension.
Explicit Knowledge.
Explicit knowledge has two important parts which are the speed and thickness of it . That is the velocity and viscosity.
Complete knowledge can be translated into formal language, including words and numbers, mathematical expressions, and provision manuals, etc. Explicit knowledge can be readily transmitted. A computer can also be used to transmit it electronically, or stored in databases.
Tacit Knowledge
Tacit Knowledge is a personal comprehension , an individual experience and involves real facts, such as personal conviction, and the value system. Tacit knowledge is hard to express with formal language. Yes, it is hard, but not impossible .It contains insights, intuitions, and ideas. Tacit knowledge must be converted into words or numbers before it can be understood. Communicated, it must be converted into words, models, or numbers that can be understand. It is worth knowing that there are two dimensions to tacit knowledge: Cognitive Procedure and Technical Procedure.

Cognitive Procedure
This involves beliefs, ideals, feelings, emotions and mental models values so embedded in us that we seems not to attach any value to. Inasmuch as we all know that they cannot be easily expressed, this dimension of tacit knowledge seems to shapes the way we feel the world around us.
Technical Procedure
This covers the kind of skill often captured in the term know-how. For example, a fisherman develops a wealth of expertise after years of experience in the same line of duty. But he often has difficulty articulating the specialty of his job. Personal insights, intuitions, subjectivity and inspirations derived from bodily experience fall into this category.

For example, Chisholm has held that the following gives the essential and adequate circumstances for knowledge:2
b. S knows that P
i. S accepts P,
ii. S has adequate evidence for P, and
iii. P is true.

I want to stress here that this one is true as there is a confirmation of the truth from another person. Amongst the three arguments I believe this particular one is more articulated as there seems to be a witness to the knowledge/ believe of another person. It is just like saying : This is a book , and you as the second person also knows it is true.


Achterbergh, Jan &amp. Vriens, Dirk (May-June 2002). "Managing viable knowledge." Systems Research and Behavioral Science. V19 i3 p223(19)

Davenport T., Prusak L. (1998). Knowledge working Harvard Business School Press: Boston, MA.

Krough G., Ichijo K., Nonaka I. (2000). Knowledge Creation Enabling New York: Oxford University Press.
Edmund L. Gettier ( 1963): 121-123. Is Justified True Belief Knowledge